URINARY 1-HYDROXYPYRENE CONCENTRATION AND TOXICITY BIOMARKERS IN ACTIVE AND PASSIVE MALE SMOKERS FROM LAGOS METROPOLIS, NIGERIA
Background: Tobacco smoking is one of the commonest addictions of modern times and it is a major source of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Objectives: This study investigated the level of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration, liver and kidney function biomarkers as well as antioxidant status in tobacco smokers and non-smokers in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria.
Methods: Eighty adult males (30 Active smokers, 10 Passive smokers and 40 Non-smokers) were recruited form two different locations in Lagos and were given a standardized questionnaire. Twenty four hour urine samples were collected and used to assay for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration while blood samples were used to determine haematological, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, total bilirubin (TB), total protein (TP), alkaline phosphatise (ALP), creatinine, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione reductase (GST) and malondialdehyde (MDA) parameters.
Results: Urinary 1-hydoxylpyrene levels in active and passive smokers were not significantly (p>0.05) different but were significantly (p?0.05) higher than that of non-smokers. Similarly, AST, ALP activities; TB and creatinine levels were significantly (p?0.05) higher in active and passive smokers than non-smokers. There was also significant (p?0.05) decrease in SOD and CAT in active and passive smokers while MDA was increased in active and passive smokers compared to non-smokers.
Conclusion: The high levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, liver enzymes and distorted antioxidant biomarkers in passive smokers are indicators that even passive smoking could predispose to adverse health effects because of spending considerable time in smoke polluted environment